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Thought about hunting but confused by the etiquette? Why not come out with us. We welcome new faces. Read our guide for newcomers here. South Devon Hunt Dartmoor hunting sans pareil. Skip to content. Posted in Hunting Leave a comment. Posted on June 13, by Peter Prior. XC Schooling has been postponed until Sunday 4th August. This is due to the waterlogged course. Suitable for all levels of experience, including beginners. This is always a popular event and the sun always shines! Starts available between 10am and 12pm. Two distance routes. The Puppy Show Posted on July 7, by sdhadmin.

Devon County Show Posted on July 7, by sdhadmin. Atque haec capitatae bracchiataeque vitis cultura est. This is done for two reasons : firstly, lest, if they are allowed to run free, the shoots should creep forward and become over- luxuriant, and use up all the shoot's nourishment, and, secondly, in oi-der that the vine, being tied back, may give the ploughman and the digger free access again for carrying on the cultivation of it.

The following will be the method of trimming. In dry, warm and sunny places, on the contrary, the clusters of grapes should be covered by its shoots, and, if the vine is not sufficiently covered with foliage, the fruit should be protected with leaves brought from elsewhere and sometimes with straw. Indeed, my 15 paternal uncle, Marcus Columella, a man learned in the noble sciences and a most industrious farmer of the province of Baetica, used to shelter his vines about the rising of the Dogstar with palm-mats, because usually during the period of the said constellation some parts of that district are so troubled by the East wind, which the inhabitants call Vulturnus, that, unless the vines are shaded with coverings, the fruit is scorched as it were with a fiery breath.

Such is the method of cultivating both the vine which grows into a head and that which grows into arms. The vine which is placed on a single rail, or that of which the firm-wood is allowed to grow and which is tied in a circular form to props of reeds, requires almost the same treatment as that trained on a frame. Itaque post vindemiam velut inutilia sarmenta decidunt, et a stirpe sub- movent. Nos autem praecipimus easdem virgas, cum a matre fuerint praecisae, sicubi demortuis vitibus ordines vacent, aut si novellam quis vineam instituere velit, pro viviradice ponere.

Quoniam quidem partes sarmentorum, quae fuerant obrutae, satis multas habent radices, quae depositae scrobibus confestim comprehendant. Nam et difficilem laborem colonis exhibet, nee un- quam generosi saporis vinum praebet. These our husband- men call viergi " divers " , while the Gauls call them candosocci ' ' layers ' ' , and they bury them for the simple reason that they think that the earth provides more nourishment for the fruit-bearing whips ; and so after the vintage they cut them off as useless shoots and remove them from the stem.

Our advice, however, is that these same rods, when they have been cut away from the mother-vine, should be planted as quick-sets in any vacant spaces in the rows where vines have died or in a new vineyard which anyone wants to establish ; for indeed the parts of the shoots which had been buried have enough roots to take hold immediately if they are put into plant-holes.

There still remains the cultivation of the vine 17 which grows on the ground ; but this should not be undertaken except where the climate is very boister- ous ; for it presents a difficult task for the husband- men and it never produces wine of a generous flavour. Where local conditions admit of this form of cultivation only, a hammer-shoot is put into plant-holes two feet deep. When it has budded, it is reduced to one firm-wood branch ; this in the first year is confined to two " eyes. De pampinatione talis vineae parum inter auctores convenit. Sed iam de vineis satis diximus.

Nunc de arboribus praecipiendum est. Qui volet frequens et dispositum arbustum paribus spatiis fructuosumque habere, operam dabit, ne emortuis arboribus rarescat ac primam quamque senio aut tempestate afflictam submoveat, et in vicem novellam sobolem substituat. I such a distance that, as it Ues on the ground, it does not reach beyond the space between the rows. Nor 18 is there a great difference between the pruning of a recumbent vine and of one which stands upright, except that the firm-wood branches in the vine which Hes on the ground should be allowed to grow to a shorter length and the stumps ought to be left narrower so as to resemble knobs.

But after the prun- ing, which in this kind of vine ought naturally to be carried out in the autumn, the whole vine is bent aside into one of the two spaces between the rows ; and the part which was previously occupied is either dug up or ploughed, and when it has been thoroughly cultivated, it receives the same vine back again, so that the other space may also be cultivated. About 19 the trimming of this kind of vineyard, there is little agreement between the authorities.

Some say that the vine ought not to be stripped, that it may the better conceal the fruit from injury by the wind and by wild beasts ; others hold that it should be trimmed only sparingly, so that the vine may not be wholly burdened with superfluous leaves and yet may be able to cover or conceal the fruit. The latter method seems to me too to be the more expedient. We have now said enough about vines ; we Plantations must now give directions about trees. This he will easily be able to achieve if he has a nursery for elms ready prepared.

Ulmorum duo esse genera convenit, Gallicum et vernaculum : illud Atinia, hoc nostras dicitur.

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Ati- niani ulmum Tremellius Scrofa non ferre sameram, quod est semen eius arboris, falso est opinatus. Itaque nemo iam serit ex samera, sed ex sobolibus. Sed vitem maxime populus videtur alere, deinde ulmus, post etiam fraxinus. Populus, quia raram, neque idoneam frondem pecori praebet, a plerisque repudiata est. It is generally agreed that there are two kinds of elms, the Gallic and the native ; the former is called the Atinian," the latter our own Italian.

That is why no one now grows it from seed but by means of shoots. This elm is much more luxuriant and taller than ours and produces foliage which is more acceptable to oxen ; when you have fed cattle on it constantly and then begin to give them foliage of the other kind, you will cause them to feel a loathing for the latter.

Therefore, if possible, we shall plant a whole field with the Atinian kind of elm only, or, failing that, we shall take care, in arrang- ing the rows, to plant native and Atinian elms to the same number alternately. In this way we shall always have a mixture of foliage for use and the cattle, attracted by this kind of seasoning for their food, will finish off with greater heartiness the full ration allotted to them.

But the poplar seems to sustain the vine best of all trees, then the elm, and after it the ash. Ulmus, quod et vitem commodissime patitur, et iucundissimum pabulum bubus affert, variisque generibus soli provenit, a plerisque praefertur. Nam populi melius cacuminibus in arbusto protinus deponuntur. Igitur pingui solo et niodice humido bipalio terram pastinabimus, ac diligenter occatam et resolutam humum verno tempore in areas componemus. Sameram deinde, quae iam rubicundi coloris erit, et compluribus diebus insolata iacuerit, ut aliquem tamen succum et lentorem habeat, iniciemus areis, et eas totas seminibus spisse contegemus, atque ita cribro putrem terram duos alte digitos incernemus, et modice rigabimus, stramentisque areas cooperie- mus, ne prodeuntia cacumina seminum ab avibus praerodantur.

A, " prorepserit SAac. The elm is preferred by most people, because it both accommodates itself very well to the vine and provides food most acceptable to oxen and flourishes in various kinds of soil. So if it is desired to establish a new plantation, nurseries of elms or ash-trees should be prepared on the system which we have described hereafter ; for poplars are better put straight into the plantation in the form of tree-tops planted in the ground.

We will, therefore, prepare the ground with a double mattock where the earth is rich and moderately moist, and in the spring-time, after the soil has been carefully harrowed and broken up, we shall mark it out into beds. We shall then cast upon the beds the elm-seed which will now be of a ruddy colour and has been exposed to the sun for several days, but still retaining some juice and stickiness, and we shall thickly cover the beds all over with the seed and scatter crumbling earth over them with a sieve to the depth of two inches and give them a moderate watering and cover the beds with straw, so that the heads of the plants, when they come up, may not be pecked off by birds.

We shall have the beds themselves planned so as to be so narrow that those who are going to weed them can easily reach to the middle of them with their hands ; for, if they are broader, the seedlings themselves will be trodden upon and receive damage. Possunt etiam collectae cum stirpi- bus plantae eadem ratione disponi : quod in Atinia ulmo fieri necesse est, quae non seritur e samera. Sed haec ulmus autumni tempore melius quam vera disponitur; paulatimque ramuli eius manu detor- quentur, quoniam primo biennio ferri reformidat ictum.

Tertio demum anno acuta falce abraditur,' atque ubi translationi iam idonea est, ex eo tempore autumni, quo terra imbribus permaduerit, usque in vernum tempus, antequam radix ulmi in eximendo 10 delibretur, recte seritur. Next the roots, if they are short, will have to be bent as it were into a knot, or, if they are too long, into a circle resembling a crown and, after being smeared with ox-dung, they must be lowered into small plant-holes and carefully trodden down all round.

The plants, too, which are 9 gathered on their stocks " can be set out in the same manner, and this is essential in the case of the Atinian elm which is not raised from seed. It is better to set this kind of elm in the autumn rather than in the spring, and its small branches are twisted little by little by hand, since in its first two years it dreads the blow of an iron implement. Finally, in its third year it is scraped with a sharp pruning- hook, and when it is fit for transplantation that is, from the season of autumn, when the ground has been thoroughly soaked with rain, until the spring, before the root of the elm is likely to lose its bark while being removed from the soil , then is the proper time for planting it.

Next plant-holes measuring three 10 feet each way must be made if the soil is loose, but, if it is dense, furrows of the same depth and width must be prepared to receive the trees. Cum deinde adolescere incipient, falce formandae, et tabulata instituenda sunt. Nam demissum ex eo palmitem germinantem inferior atteret, et fructum decutiet. Sed quamcunque arborem severis, earn biennio proximo putare non oportet.

But if we have in view the sowing of cereals also, the 11 trees should be placed, if the soil is rich, at intervals of forty feet from one another, but if it is thin and nothing is planted in it, at intervals of twenty feet. Then when they begin to grow tall, they must be shaped with the pruning-hook and successive stages " must be arranged; for the husbandmen call prominent branches and trunks by this name and either cut them closer with the knife or let them grow longer, that the vines may spread more loosely, the latter process being better on rich soil, the former on thin soil.

The " stages " should be not less than 12 three feet apart from one another and so shaped that an upper branch may not be in the same line as a lower; for the lower branch will rub against the budding shoot let down from the upper branch and shake off the fruit. But whatever tree you plant, you should not prune it during the next two years. Then afterwards, if the elm receives only a little growth, in the spring, before it sheds its bark, its top must be lopped off near the small branch which appears to be the most healthy, but in such a way as to leave above it on the trunk a stump nine inches long, towards which the branch can be trained and then applied and fastened, that, when it has been thus caught, it may provide a top for the tree.

Then after a year the stump must 13 be cut away and the place smoothed off. Sed si fieri poterit, uno ictu arborem praecidi ; si minus, serra desecari, et plagam falce allevari oportebit, eamque plagam luto paleato contegi, ne sole aut pluviis 14 infestetur. Post annum aut biennium, cum enati ramuli recte convaluerint, supervacuos deputai-i, idoneos in ordinem submitti conveniet.


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At si robusti ramuli erunt, ita ferro amputentur, ut exiguam stirpem prominentem trunco relinquas. Cum deinde arbor convaluerit, quicquid falce contingi poterit, exputandum est, allevandumque eatenus, ne plaga corpori matris applicetur. Ulmum autem novellam formare sic 15 conveniet. Loco pingui octo pedes a terra sine ramo relinquendi, vel in arvo gracili septem pedes : supra quod spatium deinde per circuitum in tres partes arbor dividenda est, ac tribus lateribus singuli ramuli 16 submittendi primo tabulate assignentur.

Mox de ternis pedibus superpositis alii rami submittendi sunt, ita ne iisdem lineis, quibus in inferiore positi sint. If possible, the tree should be cut through with a single blow ; if not, it will have to be sawn through and the wound smoothed off with a pruning-hook and covered with mud mixed with straw, so that it may not be damaged by the sun or the rain. After a year or two, when the 14 little branches which have come forth have duly gained strength, it will be fitting that those which are superfluous should be pruned away and those which are suitable should be allowed to grow freely and take their place in the row.

If an elm has made good progress since it was planted, its topmost rods should be freed from knots with a pruning-hook ; but if the small branches are vigorous, they should be cut off with a knife in such a way that you leave a little stump projecting from the trunk.

Then when the tree has gained strength, whatever can be reached with a pruning-hook should be cut away and smoothed off, without, however, any wound being inflicted on the body of the mother-tree. It will be proper to shape the young elm in the following manner. Where 15 the soil is rich, eight feet should be left from the ground, without any branches, or seven feet in poor soil ; then above this the tree must be divided into three parts throughout its circumference, and small branches, one on each of the three sides, should be allowed to grow and be allotted to the first" stage.

Vitandumque ne de duabus plagis una fiat, cum talem cicatricem non facile cortex 17 comprehendat. Vitem quoque, antequam ex toto arbor praevalescat, con- serere convenit. Ita suppares esse aetate et viribus arbores vitesque convenit. Absit autem hie ab arbore ne minus sesquipedali spatio. Nam si radicibus ulmi iunxeris, male vitis comprehendet, et cum tenuerit, incremento arboris 19 opprimetur, Hunc scrobem, si res permittit, autum- no facito, ut pluviis et gelicidiis maceretur.

Also we must avoid making one wound out of two, for the bark does not easily grow over a scar of this kind. The elm requires constant 17 attention, not only in training it carefully but also in digging round the trunk and in alternate years cutting off with a knife or tying back any foliage which has grown from it, so that excessive shade may not harm the vine. Then when the tree has reached a good age, a wound will be made in it near the ground in such a way that a hole is made reaching to the pith and a passage thus given to the moisture, which it has formed in its upper portion.

It is well also to plant the vine before the tree has reached its full strength.

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But if you wed a tender young elm to a vine, it will 18 now not support the weight ; if you couple a vine with an old elm, it will kill its mate. The trees and the vines, therefore, ought to be nearly equal in age and strength. In order to wed the tree and the vine, a trench ought to be made for the quick-set two feet wide and the same number of feet deep, if the soil is light but if it is heavy, two feet and three-quarters deep and six or at least five feet long. The trench, however, should not be less than a foot and a half from the tree ; for if you put the vine close to the roots of the elm, it will not strike root properly and, when it has taken hold, it will be smothered by the growth of the tree.

Plurimum enim refert, ut eam partem caeli spectent, cui ab tenero consueverunt. Vites in ultimo scrobe deponi oportet, materiasque earum per scrobem porrigi, deinde ad arborem erigi ; atque ab 22 iniuria pecoris caveis emuniri. Locis autem prae- fervidis semina septentrionali parte arbori appli- canda sunt : locis frigidis a meridie, temperate ' statu caeli aut ab oriente aut ab occidente, ne toto die solem vel umbram patiantur. Proxima deinde putatione melius existimat Celsus ferro abstineri, ipsosque caules in modum coronae con- 1 consueverunt c : consuerunt SAa.

This rule I lay down not only when vines are being 20 planted but also elms and the other trees ; also, that, when they are removed from the nursery-bed, one side should be marked with ruddle to warn us not to plant trees in any position other than that in which they stood in the nursery-bed ; for it is very import- ant that they should face that quarter of the sky to which they have been accustomed from their early days.

In sunny positions, however, when the climate is neither very cold nor too rainy, both trees and vines are better planted in the autumn after the equinox. They should be planted on the principle of putting 21 beneath them to a depth of half a foot top-soil which has been broken by the plough and uncoiling all the roots and covering the plants when they are set with dunged soil, which I consider the best course, or, if not, at least with broken soil, and treading round the actual stem of the plant.

The vines should be set at the edge of the trench and their firm-wood branches stretched along the trench and then erected into the tree and protected by railings from damage by cattle. In very hot localities the plants should be attached 22 to the tree on the north side, in cold places to the south side, in a temperate climate either on the east or on the west side, so that they may not have to endure the sun or the shade all day.

But long experience has taught me that it is much 23 more expedient to apply the pruning-hook to the vines on the first possible opportunity and not allow them to become bushy with superfluous shoots. I also hold that the firm-wood branch which is to be allowed to grow at first, should be cut back with the knife as far as the second or third bud, so that it may put forth more vigorous shoots, which, when they have taken hold of the first " story " of the tree, will be trained in different directions at the next pruning, and furthermore will every year be raised to the story above, one firm- wood branch being always left which, applied to the trunk, will face towards the top of the tree.

Once the vine is set in its place a fixed rule is 24 applied to it by husbandmen. Most of them crowd the lower " stories " with firm-wood branches, their object being a more abundant yield of fruit and easier cultivation. But those whose chief object is high quality in the wine, encourage the vine to mount to the top of the trees, and, as each firm-wood shoot offers itself, they stretch it out to the highest possible branch in such a way that the top of the vine keeps pace with the top of the tree, that is, that the two furthest vine-shoots are applied to the trunk of the tree so that they face its top and, as each branch gathers strength, it takes up the burden of the vine.

Torum imum imponi non oportet, quoniam vires vitis adimit. Interdum tamen ne- cessarius habetur, cum aut arbor sine ramis truncata est, aut vitis praevalens in luxuriam evagatur. Nam et commodius enodantur, et refri- gerantur, cum alio loco alligatae sunt, minusque laeduntur, ac melius convalescunt. Atque ipsos palmites ita tabulatis superponi convenit, ut a tertia gemma vel quarta religati dependeant, eosque non 28 constringi, ne sarmentum vimine praecidatur. Cato, E. A binding should not be placed at the bottom, since it takes away the strength of the vine ; however, it is sometimes considered necessary when the tree has had its branches lopped off or when the vine, growing too strong, runs riot.

The other points to be observed in pruning are that 26 the old shoots, upon which the fruit of the previous year has hung, should be all cut away, but the new ones should be allowed to grow after their tendrils have been cut back all round and the side-shoots which have grown from them have been lopped off — if the vine is in a flourishing state, the furthest shoots should be let down " through the top of the branches, if the vine is slender, the shoots nearest to the stock, and if it is of middling size, those in the middle.

For the furthest shoot produces the most fruit, the nearest the least and exhausts and enfeebles the vine. It is of great benefit to vines to unbind them every 27 year ; for they can then be more conveniently freed from knots and they are refreshed by being bound in another place and they are less damaged and recover strength better. Also it is expedient that the shoots themselves should be so placed upon the " stories " of the tree that they hang down, being attached at the third or fourth bud, and that they should not be bound too tightly, lest the vine-twig be cut by the osier.

But if the " story " is so far away that the 28 firm-wood branch cannot conveniently be made to reach it, we shall bind the shoot itself to the vine, attaching it above the third bud. Sed ipsorum palmitum duo genera sunt : alterum, quod ex duro provenit, quod quia primo anno plerumque fi'ondem sine fructu aiFert, pam- pinarium vocant ; alterum, quod ex anniculo palmite procreatur : quod quia protinus creat, fructuarium appellant. Cum deinde annis et robore vitis convaluit, traduces in proximam quamque arborem mittendae, casque post biennium amputare atque alias tene- riores transmittere convenit.

Nam vetustate vitem fatigant. Nonnunquam etiam cum arborem totam vitis comprehendere nequit, ex usu fuit partem aliquam eius deflexam terrae immergere, et rursus ad eandem arborem duas vel tres propagines excitare, quo pluribus vitibus circumventa celerius vestiatur. Nam insequenti anno 32 materias fundunt.

There are two kinds of the fruit- 29 bearing shoots themselves, one that comes out of the hard-Avood of the vine, which, because in the first year it usually puts forth leaves but no fruit, is called a tendril-bearing shoot, and another which is pro- duced from a one-year-old shoot and, because it bears fruit immediately, is called a fructuary shoot. In order that we may have plenty of shoots of this kind in our vineyard, the portions of the shoots up to three buds must be tied back, so that whatever is below the band may produce firm-wood.

Then, afterwards, 30 when the vine has increased in years and strength, the cross-branches must be conveyed to all the nearest trees and after two years must be cut away and others which are younger must be trained across ; for when they grow old they wear out the vine. Sometimes too, when the vine cannot occupy the whole tree, it has been found useful to bend part of it down and sink it into the earth and raise two or three layers again into the same tree, so that it may be surrounded by several vines and so be more quickly covered.

A tendril-bearing shoot ought not to be allowed to 31 grow on a young vine, unless it has grown in a place where it is required, so that it may be wedded to a branch which lacks a vine-shoot. Tendril-bearing shoots which grow in the right place on old vines are useful and are generally cut back to the third bud and allowed to grow with very good results ; for in the following year they produce firm-wood in abundance.

Hi plurimum fructus afFerunt, sed plurimum matri nocent. Itaque nisi extremis ramis, aut si vitis arboris cacumen superaverit, praecipitari palmitem 34 non oportet. Quod si tamen id genus colis propter fructum submittere quis velit, palmitem intorqueat. Deinde ita alliget et praecipitet. Praecipitem vero plus anno pati non oportet.

Focaneus est, qui inter duo bracchia velut in furca de medio nascitur. Eum colem deterrimum esse comperi, quod neque fructum ferat, et utraque bracchia, inter quae natus est, attenuet. Itaque tollendus est. Shoots 33 are called " precipitated " which, sprung from rods one year old, are tied to the hard wood. These bear fruit very freely but do much damage to the mother- vine ; and so a shoot ought not to be " precipitated " except from the ends of the branches or if the vine has surmounted the top of the tree.

If, however, any- 34 one wishes to let this kind of stem grow freely for the sake of the fruit, let him twist the shoot, and then tie it in that position and bend it over ; for it will put forth flourishing firm-wood behind the point at which you have twisted it, and also, when it is bent over, it will attract less strength to itself, even though it bears an abundance of fruit. A shoot which has been bent over ought not to be allowed to continue so for more than one year. Another kind of shoot which grows from a young 35 vine and hangs down tied to the tender part of the vine, we call firm-wood ; it produces a good crop both of fruit and of new sprouts, and if two rods are allowed to grow from one head, both, nevertheless, are called firm-wood ; for I have pointed out above what strength the leaf-bearing shoot possesses.

The " throat-shoot " " is that which grows out of the middle between two branches, as it were in a fork. This I have found to be the worst kind of shoot, because it does not bear fruit and it weakens both of the branches between which it has grown. It must, therefore, be removed. Most people have believed that a strong, luxuriant 36 vine becomes more fertile, if it is loaded with many shoots which are allowed to grow, but they are 65 VOL. Atque haec de Italico arbusto satis prae- cepimus. Est et alterum genus arbusti Gallici, quod vocatur rumpotinum. Id desiderat arborem hu- milem nee frondosam.

I wrong; for it produces more leaf-bearing shoots from its more numerous rods and, when it has covered itself with abundant foliage, it flowers less well and holds the fog and dew too long and loses all its clusters of grapes. I am, therefore, in favour of distributing a strong vine over the boughs of the supporting tree and spreading it in the form of cross-branches and thinning it out and bending over a certain number of grape-bearing shoots, and, if it is not luxuriant enough, leaving the firm- wood loose.

This method will make the vine more productive. Just as a dense plantation is commendable from 37 the point of view of the fruit and for its fine appear- ance, so when it becomes thin through lapse of time it is equally unprofitable and ugly to look upon. In both cases the method is very similar to that which we have already set forth.

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We have now given enough in- struction about Italian plantations. ThereisanotherkindofplantationfoundinGaul, of trees for whichiscalledthatofdwarftrees. Quin etiam cornus et carpinus et ornus non nunquam et salix a plerisque in hoc ipsum disponitur. Sed salix nisi aquosis locis, ubi aliae arbores difficiliter comprehendunt, ponenda non est, quia vini saporem infestat.

Nam fere ita constitutum rumpo- tinetum animadverti, ut ad octo pedes locis siccis et clivosis, ad duodecim locis planis et uliginosis tabu- lata disponantur. Plerumque autem ea arbor in tres ramos dividitur, quibus singulis ab utraque parte com- plura bracchia submittuntur, tum omnes pene virgae, ne umbrent, eo tempore quo vitis putatur, abraduntur. Cum ' deinde fructus pondere urgebit, subiectis adminiculis sustineatur. Indeed the cornel-tree, the horn-beam and sometimes the mountain-ash and the willow are planted by most people to this very end ; but willows should not be planted except in watery places, where other trees take root with difficulty, because it spoils the flavour of the wine.

The elm also can be adapted to this purpose " by having its top cut off while it is still young, so that it does not exceed the height of fifteen feet ; for I have noticed that the plantation of dwarf trees is usually so ordered that the " stories " are arranged at the height of eight feet in dry, sloping places, and twelve feet on flat, marshy ground. But usually this tree is divided up into three branches, upon each of which several arms are allowed to grow on both sides ; then almost all the rods are pared off" at the time when the vines are pruned, so that they may not cause a shade.

If no cereal is sown amongst the dwarf trees, spaces of twenty feet are left on either side ; but if one indulges in crops, forty feet are left on one side and twenty on the other. In all other respects operations are carried out on the same principle as in an Italian plantation, namely, that the vines are planted in long holes, that they may be looked after with the same care, and trained along the boughs of the trees, and the young cross-branches joined together every year from the nearest trees and the old ones cut off".

If one cross-branch does not reach to another, it should be connected by a rod running between them. When later the fruit bows the vine down with its weight, it should be supported by props put underneath it. VIII, Omnis tamen arboris cultus simplicior quam vinearum est, longeque ex omnibus stirpibus mi- norem impensam desiderat olea, quae prima omnium arborum est. Sed et si quam recipit, subinde fructus multiplicat : neglecta compluribus annis non ut vinea deficit, eoque ipso tempore aliquid etiam interim patrifamilias praestat, et cum adhibita cultura est, uno anno emendatur.

Quare etiam nos in hoc genere arboris diligenter praecipere censuimus. Whereas Columella says that he is going to give the names of ten kinds, nine only are named. To complete the number Schneider inserts Algiana as the second name, but he gives no indication of the source from which he derived this name. The meaningless culi, which in the MSS. The cultivation of any kind of tree is simpler The various than that of the vine, and the olive-tree, the queen oiirc-trees. For, although it does not bear fruit year after year 2 but generally in alternate years, it is held in very high esteem because it is maintained by very light cultivation and, when it is not covered with fruit, it calls for scarcely any expenditure ; also, if anything is expended upon it, it promptly multiplies its crop of fruit.

If it is neglected for several years, it does not deteriorate like the vine, but even during this period it nevertheless yields something to the owner of the property and, when cultivation is again applied to it, it recovers in a single year. We have, there- 3 fore, besides others thought it well to give careful instructions about this kind of tree. Radius below. Both words mean "shuttle". Oleum optimum Licinia dat, plurimum Sergia : omnisque olea maior fere ad escam, minor oleo est aptior. Nulla ex his generibus, aut praefervidum, aut gelidum statum caeli patitur. Itaque aestuosis locis septentrionali coUe, frigidis meridiano gaudet.

Sed neque depressa loca neque ardua, magisque modicos clivos amat, quales in Italia Sabino- rum vel tota provincia Baetica videmus.


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Sed in quibusdam locis recte valet. Optime vapores sustinet Posia,! Aptissimum genus terrae est oleis, cui glarea subest, si superposita creta sabulo admixta est. Non minus probabile est solum, ubi pinguis sabulo est. Sed et densior terra, si uvida et laeta est, commode recipit hanc arborem. Creta ex toto repudianda est, magis etiam scaturiginosa, et in qua semper uligo consistit. Of these the berry of the Posia is the most agreeable, that of the Royal the showiest, and both are more suitable for eating than for oil. The oil from the Posia has an excellent flavour as long as it is green, but it goes bad within a year.

The Orchis also and the Shuttle-olive are better gathered for eating than for their oil. The Licinian pro'duces the best oil, the Sergian the most abundant, and, generally speaking, all the bigger olives are more suitable for eating, the smaller for oil. No olive- trees of these kinds can stand a very warm or a very cold climate ; and so in very hot regions the olive- tree rejoices in the north side of a hill, in cool districts in the south side ; but it does not like either low- lying or lofty situations but prefers moderate slopes such as we see in the Sabine territory in Italy and all over the province of Baetica.

The Posia stands the heat best, the Sergian the cold. The most suitable kind of ground for olive-trees is that which has gravel underneath, if chalk mixed with coarse sand forms the top-soil. Not less highly esteemed is ground where there is rich sand, but denser soil also is well adapted to receive this tree, if it is moist and fertile. Chalk must be wholly rejected, and even more land which abounds in springs and where ooze is always standing.

Land which is lean because of sand is unfriendly to the olive-tree ; so is " Columella's native province in S. Nam etsi non emoritur in eiusmodi solo, nunquam tamen convalescit. Potest tamen in agro frumentario seri, vel ubi arbutus, aut ilex steterant. Nam quercus etiam excisa radices noxias oliveto relinquit, quarum virus enecat oleam.

Haec in universum de toto genere huius arboris habui dicere. Nunc per partes culturam eius exsequar. Hoc autem facile contingit, si prius varam feceris, et cam partem, supra quam ramum secaturus es, faeno aut stramentis texeris, ut molliter sine noxa corticis taleae super- positae secentur.

It can, how- ever, be planted on corn-land or where the straw- berry-tree or holm-oak have stood ; for the ordinary oak, even if it has been cut down, leaves behind roots harmful to the olive-grove, the poison from which kills the olive. So much for general remarks on this type of tree as a whole ; I will now describe its cultiva- tion in detail.

This kind of soil generally consists of black earth. When you have trenched it to the depth of three feet and surrounded it with a deep ditch, so that the cattle may have no access to it, allow the ground to loosen up. Then take from the most fruitful trees tall and flourishing young branches, such as the hand can grasp when it takes 2 hold of them — that is to say of the thickness of a handle — and cut off from these the freshest slips in such a way as not to injure the bark or any other part except where the saw has made its cut.

This is quite easy if you have first made a forked support and protect with hay or straw the part above which you are going to cut the branch, so that the slips which are placed in the fork may be severed gently without any damage to their bark.


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You will have to smear the tops and lower ends of the slips with a mixture of dung and ashes and plunge them completely underground in such a way that there may be four inches of loose earth above them. But the slips should be provided mth two marking-pegs, one on each side ; these are of any kind of wood and are placed a little distance away from the slips and are tied together with a band, so that they may not easily be knocked over separately. It is expedient to do this because of the unobservance of the diggers, so that, when you start tilling your nursery with mattocks or hoes, the slips which you have planted may not be injured.

In the follow- ing and subsequent years, when the rootlets of the plants have gained strength, they should be cul- tivated with rakes ; but for the first two years it is best to abstain from pruning, and in the third year two little branches should be left on each plant, and the nursery should be frequently hoed. In the fourth year the weaker of the two branches should be cut away. Thus cultivated the small trees are fit for transplantation in five years.

In dry soil and " The text here is apparently corrupt beyond emendation : the above is a translation of the reading of the MSS. Sed in Favonium dirigi ordines convenit, ut aestivo perflatu refrige- rentur. Four-foot plant-holes are prepared for them a year earlier, or, if there is not an abundance of time before the trees are planted, let straw and twigs be thrown in and the plant-holes burnt, so that the fire may make them friable, as the sun and frost ought to have done.

On ground which is rich and fit for growing corn the space between the rows ought to be sixty feet in one direction and forty in the other : if the soil is poor and not suitable for crops, twenty-five feet. But it is proper that the rows should be aligned towards the west, that they may be cooled by the summer-breeze blowing through them.

The small trees themselves may be transplanted in the following manner. Before you pull up a little tree from the soil," mark on it with ruddle the side of it which faces south, so that it may be planted in the same manner as in the nursery. Next let a space of one foot be left round the little tree in a circle and then let the plant be pulled up with its own turf, and that this turf may not be broken up in the process of removal, you must weave together moderate-sized twigs taken from rods and apply them to the lump of earth which is being removed and so bind it with " The text here is quite uncertain, but the sense is obvious.

Deinde ingerendi minuti la- pides vel glarea mixta pingui solo, depositisque seminibus latera scrobis circumcidenda, et aliquid 10 stercoris interponendum. Poterit etiam longe maioris incrementi et robustioris transferri. Quern ita convenit poni, ut, si non periculum a pecore habeat, exiguus admodum supra scrobem emineat : laetius enim frondet. Then having dug up the 9 lowest part, you must gently move the lump of earth and bind it to the rods put under it and transfer the plant. Next minute stones or gravel mixed with rich soil must be thrown in and, after seeds have been put in, the sides of the plant-hole must be pared away all round and some manure put in among them.

If, however, it is not convenient to remove the plant 10 with its own earth, it is best to strip the stem of all its leaves and, after smoothing its wounds and daubing them with mud and ashes, place it in the plant-hole or furrow. A stem is quite ready for moving '' which is as thick as a man's arm ; one of much greater and stronger growth can also be transplanted, but it must be so placed if it is not in any danger from cattle, that only a little of it projects above the plant-hole ; it then produces more luxuriant foliage.

If, however, the attacks of cattle cannot be avoided in any other way, the stem will be planted so as to project further from the ground, so that it may " Schneider, by a quotation from Palladius III. Atque etiam rigandae sunt plantae, cum siccitates incesserunt, nee nisi post biennium ferro tangendae. Deinde constitutum iam et maturum olivetum in duas partes dividere, quae alternis annis fructu in- duantur. Neque enim olea continuo biennio uberat. Omnis deinde soboles, quae ex imo stirpe nata est, quotannis extirpanda est, ac tertio quoque fimo pabulandae sunt oleae.

The plants must 11 also be watered, when droughts occur, and they must not be touched with the knife unless two years have passed; and, firstly, they ought to be trimmed so that there is only a single stem which exceeds the height of the tallest ox ; and, secondly, lest in ploughing an ox should hit it with his haunch or any other part of his body, it is best to protect the plants with fences, even plants that are established.

When the olive grove is established and has reached maturity, you must divide it into two parts, so that they may be clothed with fruit in alternate years ; for the olive-tree does not produce an abundance two years in succession. When the 12 ground underneath has not been sown with a crop, the tree is putting forth its shoots ; when the ground is full of sown crop, the tree is bearing fruit ; the olive-grove, therefore, being thus divided, gives an equal return every year.

But it ought to be ploughed at least twice a year and dug deep all round the trees with hoes ; for after the solstice, when the ground gapes open from the heat, care must be taken that the sun does not penetrate to the roots of the trees through the cracks. After the autumn equinox the trees ought 13 to be trenched all round, so that, if the olive-grove is on a slope, ditches may be formed from the higher ground to convey water to the trunks of the trees.

Next every shoot which springs from the lowest part of the stem must be removed each year, and every third year the olive-trees must be fed with dung. The olive-grove will be manured by the same method as that which I suggested in the second book," if, ' Book II. Quod tamen satis erit octavo anno fecisse, ne fructu- arii rami subinde amputentur. The dung ought to be put in during f the autumn, so that, being thoroughly mixed in, it ' may warm the roots of the olive in the winter.

The lees of oil should be poured upon those trees which are not thriving very well ; for during the winter, if worms and other creatures have got into them, they are killed by this treatment. Generally too in dry as well 15 as in moist places the trees are infested with moss, and unless you scrape it off with an iron instrument, the olive-tree will not put forth fruit or an abundance of leaves.

Moreover, the olive-grove must be pruned at intervals of several years; for it is well to re- member the old proverb " He who ploughs the olive- grove, asks it for fruit; he who manures it, begs for fruit ; he who lops it, forces it to yield fruit. It happens also frequently that, though the trees 16 are thriving well, they fail to bear fruit. It is a good plan to bore them with a Gallic auger and to put tightly into the hole a green slip taken from a wild olive-tree ; the result is that the tree, being as it were impregnated with fruitful offspring, becomes more pro- " I.

Altis gyris ablaqueabimus eas, deinde calcis pro magnitudine arboris plus minusve circumdabimus : sed minima arbor modium postulat. Hoc remedio si nihil fuerit eflFectum, ad praesidium insitionis confugiendum erit. Quemadmodum autem olea inserenda sit, postmodo dicemus. Non nunquam etiam in olea unus ramus ceteris aliquanto est laetior. Quem nisi recideris, tota arbor contristabitur. Ac de olivetis hactenus dixisse satis est. Superest ratio ' pomiferarum arborum, cui rei deinceps praecepta dabimus. But it must also be assisted by being dug round and by unsalted lees of oil mixed with pigs' urine or stale human urine, a fixed quantity of each being observed ; for a very large tree an urn will be fully enough, if the same quantity of water is mixed with it.

Olive-trees also often refuse to bear fruit because of the badness of the soil. This we shall 17 remedy in the following manner. We shall dig deep trenches in circles round them and then put more or less lime round them according to the size of the tree, though the smallest tree requires a modius. If there is no result from this remedy, we shall have to have recourse to the assistance of grafting.

How an olive- tree should be ingrafted we will describe hereafter. Sometimes also one branch of an olive-tree flourishes somewhat more than the rest and, unless you cut it back, the whole tree will languish. This must suffice for our description of olive-groves. It remains to deal with the treatment of fruit-bear- ing trees, on which subject we will give instructions forthwith. It is expedient to arrange the trees accord- 2 " The rest of this book is slightly longer but almost identical with de Arhoribus, Ch.

Terra, quae vitibus apta est, etiam arboribus est utilis. Ante annum, quam seminare voles, scrobem fodies. Arbores raris intervallis serito, ut, cum creverint, spatium habeant, quo ramos extend ant. Nam si spisse posueris, nee infra serere quid poteris, nee ipsae fructuosae erunt, nisi intervulseris : itaque inter ordines quadragenos pedes minimumque tri- cenos relinquere convenit.

Ground which is suitable for vines is also advantageous for trees. You will dig the plant-hole in which you wish to put a plant a year beforehand, for then it will be softened by the sun or the rain, and that which has been put into it Avill take root quickly. But if you are in a hurry to make the plant-hole and to set the plants in the same year, dig the plant-holes at least two months before- hand and afterwards warm the holes by burning straw in them.

The broader and wider you make them, the more luxuriant and abundant will be the fruit which you will gather. Let your plant-hole be like an oven, wider at the bottom than at the top, so that the roots may spread more loosely, and less cold in winter and less heat in summer may penetrate through the narrow mouth, and also that on sloping ground the earth which is heaped up in it may not be washed away by rains. Plant the trees at wide intervals, so that, when they have grown, they may have room to spread their branches. For if you set them thickly, neither will you be able to plant anything underneath them, nor will they be themselves fruitful unless you thin them out ; and so it is well to leave forty or at least thirty feet between the rows.

Choose plants at least as thick as the handle of a hoe and straight, smooth, 11 hieme om. Ea bene et celeriter eomprehendent. Si cum radice plantam posueris, in- crementum maius futurum quam ceteris senties. Such plants will take root well and quickly. If you take branches from trees, choose them from those which bear good and abundant fruit every year, taking them from the " shoulders " which face the rising sun.

If you have set a plant with its root you will perceive that the growth will be quicker than in the other plants. A tree which is ingrafted is more fruitful than one which is not, that is, than one which is planted in the form of a branch or of a small plant.

lemmatization-lists/epysejicur.tk at master · michmech/lemmatization-lists · GitHub

But, before you transplant small trees, note what winds they had formerly faced, and afterwards get to work and transfer them from a sloping, dry position to moist soil. Preferably plant a tree which has three prongs, and let it project at least three feet from the ground. If you wish to put two or three small trees in the same trench, take care that they do not touch one another, since then they will be killed by worms.

I'' constituere SAac. Schneider : depone Aac : depones iS. Arbores ac semina cum radicibus autum- 9 no serito, hoc est circa idus Octob. P'icum frigoribus ne serito. Loca aprica, calculosa, glareosa, interdum et saxeta amat. Eiusmodi arbor cito convalescit, si scrobes amplos patentesque feceris. Set trees and seedlings with roots in autumn, that is, about October 15th, but plant cuttings and branches in 9 the early spring before the trees begin to bud ; and, in order that the moth may not damage fig-tree seedlings, put in the bottom of the trench a slip from a mastic-tree with its top inverted.

Do not plant a fig-tree in cold weather. It likes sunny positions, where there are pebbles and gravel, and sometimes also rocky places. This kind of tree quickly gains strength if you make your trenches roomy and wide. The various kinds of fig-tree, al- 10 though they differ greatly in flavour and habit, are planted in the same manner, allowance being made for the difference of soil. In cold places and where the autumn season is wet, you should plant those whose fruits ripen early, so that you may gather the fruit before the rain comes ; but plant winter figs in warm places. If, on the other hand, you wish to make a fig-tree bear late fruit, which it does not naturally do, shake down the unripe or early fruit, and it will then produce another crop which it will defer to the winter.

Sometimes too, when the trees begin to bear leaves, it is beneficial to cut off the extreme tops of the fig-tree with a knife ; the trees are then sturdier and more prolific. It will be always a good plan, as soon as the fig-tree begins to put forth leaves, to dissolve ruddle in lees of olive-oil and pour it together with human ordure over the roots. This makes the 11 fruit more abundant and the inner part of the fig fuller 1' farctum add. Febr,, quia prima gemmascit : agrum durum, calidum, siccum desiderat. Nam in locis diversis nucem si depo- sueris, plerumque putrescit.

Antequam nucem deponas, in aqua mulsa nee nimis dulci macerato. Ita iucundioris saporis fructum, cum adoleverit, 13 praebebit, et interim melius atque celerius frondebit. Omnis autem nux unam radicem mittit, et simplici stilo prorepit. Cum ad scrobis solum radix pervenit, duritia humi coercita recurvatur, et ex se in modum ramorum alias radices emittit. It is said to have been called after Livia, the wife of Augustus. You should plant the almond-tree, since it is the 12 first tree to put out buds, about February 1st.

It requires hard, warm, dry ground ; for if you plant a nut in places which have different qualities from these, it generally rots. Before you put the nut in the ground, soak it in honey-water, which should not be too sweet ; it will then, when it comes to maturity, produce fruit of a pleasanter flavour, and meanwhile its foliage will grow better and quicker.

Place three 13 nuts so as to form a ti'iangle and let them be at least a hand's breadth away from one another, and let one apex of the triangle face towards the West. Every nut sends out one root and creeps out of the ground with a single stem. When the root has reached the bottom of the planting-hole, it is checked by the hardness of the soil and bent back and puts forth from itself other roots like the branches of a tree.

You will be able to make an almond and a filbert into a Tarentine nut in the following manner. In 14 the planting-hole in which you intend to sow the nuts place fine soil to a depth of half a foot and set in it a fennel-root. When the fennel has grown up, split it and secrete in the pith of it an almond or a ' This kind is not otherwise mentioned and the name is perhaps corrupt.

It was also called passeraria. Hoc ante calend. Martias facito, vel etiam inter nonas et idus Mart. Eodem tempore iuglandem et pineam et castaneam serere oportet. Aprilis recta seritur. Quod si acidum aut minus dulcem fructum feret, hoc modo emendabitur. Stercore suillo et humano urinaque vetere radices rigato. Nos exiguum admodum laseris vino diluimus, et ita cacumina arboris summa oblevimus. Ea res 16 emendavit acorem malorum. Alio modo, cum iam matura mala fuerint, antequam rumpantur, ramulos, quibus dependent, intorqueto.

Eodem modo servabuntur incorrupta etiam toto anno. Do this before March 1st or between March 7th and 15th. You should at the same time plant the walnut, the pinenut and the chestnut. It is correct to plant the pomegranate in the spring 15 up to April 1st. But if it bears fruit which is bitter and not sweet, this will be remedied by the follow- ing method : moisten the roots with sow-dung and human ordure and stale urine.

This will both render the tree fertile and during the first years cause the fruit to have a vinous taste ; after five years it makes it sweet and its kernels soft. We ourselves have mixed just a little juice of alexanders with wine and smeared the uppermost tops of the tree. This has remedied the tartness of the fruit. To prevent 16 pomegranates from bursting on the tree, the remedy is to place three stones at the very root of the tree when you plant it; if, however, you have already planted it sow a squill near the root of the tree.

According to another method, when the fruit is al- ready ripe and before it bursts, you should twist the little boughs on which it hangs. By the same method the fruit will keep without decaying for a whole year. Plant the pear-tree in the autumn before winter 17 comes, so that at least twenty-five days remain before mid-winter.

In order that the tree may be fruitful when it has come to maturity, trench deeply round it and split the trunk close to the very root and into the fissure insert a wedge of pitch-pine and leave it there ; then, when the loosened soil has been filled in, throw ashes over the ground. Ea sunt Crustu- mina, regia, Signina, Tarentina, quae Syria dicuntur, purpurea, superba, hordeacea, Aniciana, Naeviana, Favoniana, Lateritana, Dolabelliana, Turraniana, volaema, mulsa,i praecocia, venerea, et quaedam alia, 19 quorum enumeratio nunc longa est.

Quae omnia non solum voluptatem, sed etiam salubritatem afFerunt. Sorbi quoque et Armeniaci atque Persici non minima est gratia. H, XV. Favonius, an imitator of Cato Cicero, Alt. Cicero had a villa Cicero, AH. XI, 1. All these cause not only pleasure but also good health. Service-apples also and apricots and peaches have no small charm. You should plant apple-trees, service- trees and plum trees after the middle of winter and until February 13th.

The time for planting mul- 20 berries is from February 13th to the spring equinox. Turranius Niger, the friend of Varro Varro, R. Servius derives the name from vola and says it means " hand-filler.

Cydonia is a town in Crete. Amygdala, si parum ferax erit, forata arbore lapidem adicito, et ita librum arboris inolescere sinito. Danda est opera, ut dum teneros ramulos habent, veluti pampinentur, et ad unum stilum primo anno semina redigantur. Sed omnis surculus omni arbori inseri potest, si non est ei, cui inseritur, cortice dissimilis.

Si vero etiam similem fructum et eodem tempore afFert, sine scrupulo egregie inseritur. Tria genera porro in- sitionum antiqui tradiderunt. If an almond is not productive enough, make a hole in the tree and drive in a stone and so allow the bark of the tree to grow over. It is proper to plant out the branches of all kinds of 21 fruit trees about March 1st in gardens on raised beds after the soil has been well worked and manured. Care must be taken to trim them while the little branches are young and tender and in the first year the seedlings should be reduced to a single stem.

When autumn has come on, before the cold nips the tops, it is well to strip off all the foliage and to cover the trees with caps, as it were, of thick reeds which 22 have their knots intact on one side, and thus protect the still tender rods from cold and frosts. Then after twenty-four months you will be able quite safely to do whichever you wish of two things — either to transplant and arrange them in rows or else to en- graft them. Any kind of scion can be grafted on any tree, The graft- if it is not dissimilar in respect of bark to the tree in t"fes.

Quae utraque genera veris temporis sunt. Tertium, quo ipsas gemmas cum exiguo cortice in partem sui delibratam recipit, quam vocant agricolae emplastra- tionem ; vel, ut quidam, inoculationem. Hoc genus insitionis aestivo tempore optime usurpatur. Quarum insitionum rationem cum tradiderimus, a nobis re- pertam quoque docebimus. Surculi sint bi- furci vel trifurci. Cum deinde truncum recideris, acuto ferra- mento plagam levato. Deinde quasi cuneum tenuera ferreum vel osseum inter corticem et materiam ne minus digitos tres, sed considerate, demittito, ne laedas aut rumpas corticem.