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Likewise, the Cappadocian Fathers also insisted there was no economic inequality present within the Trinity. As Basil wrote: "We perceive the operation of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit to be one and the same, in no respect showing differences or variation; from this identity of operation we necessarily infer the unity of nature.

The Endless Knot

The traditional theory of "appropriation" consists in attributing certain names, qualities, or operations to one of the Persons of the Trinity, not, however, to the exclusion of the others, but in preference to the others. This theory was established by the Latin Fathers of the fourth and fifth centuries, especially by Hilary of Poitiers , Augustine , and Leo the Great. In the Middle Ages, the theory was systematically taught by the Schoolmen such as Bonaventure.

Augustine "coupled the doctrine of the Trinity with anthropology. Proceeding from the idea that humans are created by God according to the divine image, he attempted to explain the mystery of the Trinity by uncovering traces of the Trinity in the human personality". In De trinitate — he wrote,.

The Bible reveals it although only in the two neighboring verses 1 John ;16 , therefore one must ask if love itself is triune. Augustine found that it is, and consists of "three: the lover, the beloved, and the love.

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Reaffirming the theopaschite formula unus de trinitate passus est carne meaning "One of the Trinity suffered in the flesh" , [66] Thomas Aquinas wrote that Jesus suffered and died as to his human nature, as to his divine nature he could not suffer or die. For it says in 1 Peter : "Christ having suffered in the flesh" For, in the divine nature by which He is equal to the Father. In the s the recovery of a substantially different formula of theopaschism took place: at least unus de Trinitate passus est meaning " The underlying question is if the three Persons of the Trinity can live a self-love amor sui , as well as if for them, with the conciliar dogmatic formulation in terms that today we would call ontotheological , it is possible that the aseity causa sui is valid.

Benjamin B. Warfield saw a principle of subordination in the "modes of operation" of the Trinity, but was also hesitant to ascribe the same to the "modes of subsistence" in relation of one to another. While noting that it is natural to see a subordination in function as reflecting a similar subordination in substance, he suggests that this might be the result of " According to Eusebius, Constantine suggested the term homoousios at the Council of Nicaea, though most scholars have doubted that Constantine had such knowledge and have thought that most likely Hosius had suggested the term to him.

Trinitarian formulas found in the New Testament include Matthew , 2 Corinthians , 1 Corinthians , Ephesians , 1 Peter and Revelation Eventually, the diverse references to God, Jesus, and the Spirit found in the New Testament were brought together to form the doctrine of the Trinity—one God subsisting in three persons and one substance. The doctrine of the Trinity was used to combat heretical tendencies of how the three are related and to defend the church against charges of worshiping two or three gods.

The Comma Johanneum , 1 John , is a disputed text which states: "For there are three that bear record in heaven, the Father, the Word, and the Holy Ghost: and these three are one. In the letters of Paul, the public, corporate devotional patterns towards Jesus in the early Christian community are reflective of Paul's perspective on the divine status of Jesus in what scholars have termed a "binitarian" pattern of devotion. For Paul, Jesus receives prayer 1 Cor. The term can also refer to the religious act of devotion towards a deity.

The Gospel of John has been seen as especially aimed at emphasizing Jesus' divinity, presenting Jesus as the Logos , pre-existent and divine, from its first words: " In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. Some have suggested that John presents a hierarchy [ citation needed ] when he quotes Jesus as saying, "The Father is greater than I", [] a statement which was appealed to by nontrinitarian groups such as Arianism.

Prior Jewish theology held that the Spirit is merely the divine presence of God himself, [96] whereas orthodox Christian theology holds that the Holy Spirit is a distinct person of God himself. This development begins early in the New Testament, as the Spirit of God receives much more emphasis and description comparably than it had in earlier Jewish writing. Whereas there are 75 references to the Spirit within the Old Testament and 35 identified in the non-biblical Dead Sea Scrolls , the New Testament, despite its significantly shorter length, mentions the Spirit times.

In addition to its larger emphasis and importance placed on the Spirit in the New Testament, the Spirit is also described in much more personalized and individualized terms than earlier. Moreover, the New Testament references often portray actions that seem to give the Spirit an intensely personal quality, probably more so than in Old Testament or ancient Jewish texts.

To cite other examples of this, in Acts the Spirit alerts Peter to the arrival of visitors from Cornelius , directs the church in Antioch to send forth Barnabas and Saul —4 , guides the Jerusalem council to a decision about Gentile converts , at one point forbids Paul to missionize in Asia , and at another point warns Paul via prophetic oracles of trouble ahead in Jerusalem In the New Testament, the Spirit is not a recipient of devotion or worship as can be found in the Nicene Creed , though there are aspects of the New Testament which describe the Spirit as the subject of religious ritual in Matthew and 2 Corinthians As the Arian controversy was dissipating, the debate moved from the deity of Jesus Christ to the equality of the Holy Spirit with the Father and Son.

On one hand, the Pneumatomachi sect declared that the Holy Spirit was an inferior person to the Father and Son. On the other hand, the Cappadocian Fathers argued that the Holy Spirit was equal to the Father and Son in nature or substance. Although the main text used in defense of the deity of the Holy Spirit was Matthew , Cappadocian Fathers such as Basil the Great argued from other verses such as "But Peter said, 'Ananias, why has Satan filled your heart to lie to the Holy Spirit and to keep back for yourself part of the proceeds of the land?

While it remained unsold, did it not remain your own? And after it was sold, was it not at your disposal? Why is it that you have contrived this deed in your heart? You have not lied to men but to God. Another passage the Cappadocian Fathers quoted from was "By the word of the Lord the heavens were made, and by the breath of his mouth all their host. And since, according to them, [99] because only the holy God can create holy beings such as the angels, the Son and Holy Spirit must be God.

Yet another argument from the Cappadocian Fathers to prove that the Holy Spirit is of the same nature as the Father and Son comes from "For who knows a person's thoughts except the spirit of that person, which is in him? So also no one comprehends the thoughts of God except the Spirit of God. They also combined "the servant does not know what his master is doing" [John ] with 1 Corinthians in an attempt to show that the Holy Spirit is not the slave of God, and therefore his equal.

The Pneumatomachi contradicted the Cappadocian Fathers by quoting, "Are they not all ministering spirits sent out to serve for the sake of those who are to inherit salvation? In addition, the Old Testament has also been interpreted as foreshadowing the Trinity, by referring to God's word, [Ps ] his spirit, [Isa ] and Wisdom, [Prov ] as well as narratives such as the appearance of the three men to Abraham. Some Church Fathers believed that a knowledge of the mystery was granted to the prophets and saints of the Old Testament, and that they identified the divine messenger of Genesis , , , Exodus and Wisdom of the sapiential books with the Son, and "the spirit of the Lord" with the Holy Spirit.

Genesis 18—19 has been interpreted by Christians as a Trinitarian text. The narrative has the Lord appearing to Abraham, who was visited by three men. Justin Martyr , and John Calvin similarly, interpreted it such that Abraham was visited by God, who was accompanied by two angels. Justin appropriated the God who visited Abraham to Jesus, the second person of the Trinity. Augustine, in contrast, held that the three visitors to Abraham were the three persons of the Trinity. Then in Genesis 19 , two of the visitors were addressed by Lot in the singular: "Lot said to them, 'Not so, my lord.

Some Christians interpret the theophanies or appearances of the Angel of the Lord as revelations of a person distinct from God, who is nonetheless called God. This interpretation is found in Christianity as early as Justin Martyr and Melito of Sardis , and reflects ideas that were already present in Philo. The Trinity is most commonly seen in Christian art with the Spirit represented by a dove, as specified in the Gospel accounts of the Baptism of Christ ; he is nearly always shown with wings outspread.

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However depictions using three human figures appear occasionally in most periods of art. The Father and the Son are usually differentiated by age, and later by dress, but this too is not always the case. The usual depiction of the Father as an older man with a white beard may derive from the biblical Ancient of Days , which is often cited in defense of this sometimes controversial representation.

However, in Eastern Orthodoxy the Ancient of Days is usually understood to be God the Son, not God the Father see below —early Byzantine images show Christ as the Ancient of Days, [] but this iconography became rare. When the Father is depicted in art, he is sometimes shown with a halo shaped like an equilateral triangle , instead of a circle.

The Son is often shown at the Father's right hand. In early medieval art, the Father may be represented by a hand appearing from a cloud in a blessing gesture, for example in scenes of the Baptism of Christ. This subject continued to be popular until the 18th century at least. By the end of the 15th century, larger representations, other than the Throne of Mercy, became effectively standardised, showing an older figure in plain robes for the Father, Christ with his torso partly bare to display the wounds of his Passion , and the dove above or around them.

In earlier representations both Father, especially, and Son often wear elaborate robes and crowns. Sometimes the Father alone wears a crown, or even a papal tiara. In the later part of the Christian Era , in Renaissance European iconography, the Eye of Providence began to be used as an explicit image of the Christian Trinity and associated with the concept of Divine Providence. Seventeenth-century depictions of the Eye of Providence sometimes show it surrounded by clouds or sunbursts.

God the Father top , and the Holy Spirit represented by a dove depicted above Jesus. Painting by Francesco Albani d. Atypical depiction. A Christian version of the Eye of Providence, emphasizing the triangle representing the Trinity. Nontrinitarianism or antitrinitarianism refers to Christian belief systems that reject the doctrine of the Trinity as found in the Nicene Creed as not having a scriptural origin.

Nontrinitarian views differ widely on the nature of God, Jesus, and the Holy Spirit. Various nontrinitarian views, such as Adoptionism , Monarchianism , and Arianism existed prior to the formal definition of the Trinity doctrine in AD , , and , at the Councils of Nicaea, Constantinople, and Ephesus, respectively. When the Franks converted to Catholicism in , however, it gradually faded out. Also binitarianism. Islam considers Jesus to be a prophet , but not divine, [] and Allah to be absolutely indivisible a concept known as tawhid.

They surely disbelieve who say: Lo!

The Endless Knot (Father Baptist Series) (Volume 1)

God is the Messiah, son of Mary. His abode is the Fire. For evil-doers there will be no helpers. God is the third of three; when there is no Lord save the One Lord. If they desist not from so saying a painful doom will fall on those of them who disbelieve. Will they not rather turn unto God and seek forgiveness of Him?

For God is Forgiving, Merciful. The Messiah, son of Mary, was no other than a messenger, messengers the like of whom had passed away before him. And his mother was a saintly woman. And they both used to eat earthly food. See how We make the revelations clear for them, and see how they are turned away! Quran Interpretation of these verses by modern scholars has been varied. Verse has been interpreted as a potential criticism of Syriac literature that references Jesus as "the third of three" and thus an attack on the view that Christ was divine.

The existence of this group and their presence in Arabia in the Islamic period is not clear. Judaism traditionally maintains a tradition of monotheism to the exclusion of the possibility of a Trinity. The idea of God as a duality or trinity is heretical — it is even considered by some to be polytheistic.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the album, see Father, Son, Holy Ghost album. For the holy trinity in cooking, see Holy trinity cuisine. For other uses, see Holy Trinity disambiguation , Trinitarian disambiguation , and Trinity disambiguation. Christian doctrine that God is one God, but three coeternal consubstantial persons. General conceptions. Specific conceptions.

Western art eventually required some way to illustrate the presence of the Father, so through successive representations a set of artistic styles for the depiction of the Father in human form gradually emerged around the tenth century CE. By the twelfth century depictions of a figure of God the Father, essentially based on the Ancient of Days in the Book of Daniel had started to appear in French manuscripts and in stained glass church windows in England. In the 14th century the illustrated Naples Bible had a depiction of God the Father in the Burning bush.


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By the 15th century, the Rohan Book of Hours included depictions of God the Father in human form or anthropomorphic imagery. The depiction remains rare and often controversial in Eastern Orthodox art, and by the time of the Renaissance artistic representations of God the Father were freely used in the Western Church. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Jesus Christ. Jesus in Christianity Virgin birth Crucifixion Resurrection appearances. Bible Foundations. History Tradition. Denominations Groups. Related topics. General conceptions. Specific conceptions. In particular religions.

Experiences Practices. Main article: God in Christianity. Main article: Nontrinitarianism. Main article: God in Hinduism. Main article: God in Islam. See also: Av. Main article: God in Sikhism. Main article: God the Father in Western art. Early Christian Creeds Longmans, pp.

Archived from the original PDF on 17 December The Divine Heart of God the Father 2nd ed. McGonigle and James F. Oxford University Press. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, Credo Reference. Retrieved 13 April Jews and "Jewish Christianity". Let's Get Biblical. RNBN Publishers; 2nd edition Outreach Judaism The real Messiah? Retrieved 7 December The four elements of nature - earth, water, wind, and fire - are staged on a creative way on each murder.

As the story unfolds, Fr. Feeney will be needing divine help to guide and protect them in this hunt for the master mind behind all these crimes. Prayers, wisdom, faith, courage, and trust on God's divine mercy will be their safeguard against the forces of evil involved in this case. Baptist must think like the killer to prevent the death of the ultimate target, Archbishop Fullbright. Although Fr. Feeney are doing their own private investigation for Archbishop Fullbright, they must also cooperate and join forces with Chief Police Billwack's detectives - Sergeant Wickes and Lieutenant Taper - to capture the killer before it is too late.

Through a conversation between Fr. Feeney, the author shares with his readers a glimpse into Fr. Baptist's detective work and marital life prior to his priesthood vocation. The readers will also get to know many aspects of Millie, the parish's cook, who despise her roughness, cares deeply about Fr. Biersach skillfully introduces the main character of his next book, The Darkness Did Not, as he answers a newspaper ad placed by Fr. Baptist while gathering information to solve the case at hand.

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After the case is solved and closed, Mr. Feeney is able to understand the meaning of a child's painting given to him many years back, which is now hanging on one of his room's walls. This painting, coincidently, happens to be at the core of the events unfolded in this story. The underline moral of this story is that evil always disguises itself as good and powerful.

It goes around seducing weak people with attractive, false promises leading to perdition and destruction. As shown by Fr. Baptist, wisdom and faith are two mighty tools against the snare of the devil. I highly recommend this book to readers looking for a truly entertaining homicide story packed with suspense, mysteries, religion facts and humor — while touching on the intriguing world of the occult. Biersach's Fr. Baptist mystery series is the best alternative to Dan Brown's best sellers novels!

Jan 06, Chris rated it it was amazing Shelves: fiction. If you've made it this far, read the book! It's fantastic! Jun 12, Vincent rated it it was amazing Shelves: catholic-fiction. Turnbuckle, Guillaume du Crane Cristal, and let's not forget the Tumblars, after which the publishing company is named. Biersach is the master of overstatement, which is an especially fruitful skill when it comes to writing angry characters.

Such being the case, you will delight in every "hrmph,""bah," and "pshaw" you come across. There is one character who sticks out like a sore thumb, because he is neither wacky nor eccentric, and that is Father John Baptist. Simply defined, Fr. Baptist is the ideal priest. He is obedient, unwavering, dogmatic, and most importantly, mindful of his role in facilitating the salvation of his parishioners. One would think that, with all of these qualities, he would be popular.

On the contrary, because he is traditional-minded, and because he says the Latin Mass, he is an outcast in his diocese. Martin Feeney, who is Fr. Martin is actually treated as the author of The Endless Knot, with the book serving as his own retelling of the events, while giving the characters fictional names in order to preserve their identity. Note: This is a work of fiction, and in no way based on a real-life story Thus, Martin's character is doubly important because he provides the lens through which everyone else is characterized.

You can tell that Biersach had a lot of fun writing this novel, as he even had fun naming his characters. Poor Monsignor Goolgol is assigned a name befitting some foul creature out of a Tolkien novel. And then there's Chief Billowack. Based on the name alone, it's not hard to deduce what Billowack's character is like. But just for fun, let's take a look at the reader's first impression of him as he enters the scene: "Lombard," came a marrow-melding roar. The sound and the shape were reminiscent of the radioactive star of a Godzilla movie.

He was mean, he was wide, he was towering in the doorway. The citizens of Tokyo were scattering across the carpet in terror at his feet. As you can see, hyperbole is Biersach's stock and trade. Last but not least, we have the Knights Tumblar, also known as the Tumblars. The name itself represents the dichotomy of their nature. On one hand, they embody a new age of chivalry with their formalwear, defense of the Faith, and class.

On the other hand, they love to drink and have fun. The Tumblar mentality is pleasant to dwell on, as it stands in stark contrast to the Puritanical notion that in order to be religious, you need to oppose food, drink, and merriment in general. In their own unique way, the Tumblars show that the life entrusted to us by Christ should be celebrated. Plot: With the murder of an auxiliary bishop in the mythical city of Los Angeles, the cop-turned-priest Fr. Baptist is summoned by the Archbishop to aid in the investigation.

However, before Fr. Baptist agrees to take on the assignment, he asks the Archbishop that he be paid for his services: The archbishop glared at him, veins popping all over the whites of his eyes.